Wildfires are a common phenomenon across the earth. A wildfire generally occurs where vegetation is present in abundance such as the wildfires occurring in the amazon forests. This phenomenon is also known as biomass burning (BB) and is termed as an environmental calamity. The main product of BB events is excessive amounts of smoke due to the partial combustion reaction. This smoke mainly contains harmful gases and aerosol particles. They directly affect the health of all the living things in the vicinity and indirectly affect the local as well as global climate.
The number of BB emissions are directly proportional to climate change and are expected to increase shortly. Majority of the BB aerosol mass is contributed by tarballs. They are light-absorbing type, minute organic biomass burning particles. They gravely affect the climate, but the reasons how they influence the climate are still unclear. Researchers, Kouji Adachi, and Peter Buseck studied tarballs from various wildfires from 2005 to 2011. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Lab noticed their work and planned the BBOP, i.e., Burning Operational Period field campaign. In this experiment headed by Lawrence Kleinman & Arthur Sedlacek III, a pre-programmed plane would measure the fast chemical changes in a forest-fire smoke. The results were published on 5th September 2019 in National Academy of Sciences. They noted that tarballs are formed by physical and chemical changes in organic aerosols in the initial hours of wildfires. Mr. Busec credited Li Jia & Mihaly Posfai from ASU for the formative research on tarballs in 2003. Busec will be awarded the Roebling Medal of 2019 in this month. It is the highest award of the Mineralogical Society of America.
The samples used in this report were collected from numerous wildfires from the northwestern states of the US in the summer of 2013. They were studied using a TEM and analyzed using transmission X-ray spectroscopy. The paper summarizes that the content of the tarball in the BB emissions is expected to increase in coming years due to climate change.